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A fitting is used in pipe plumbing systems to connect straight pipe or tubing sections, to adapt to different sizes or shapes, and for other purposes, such as regulating or measuring fluid flow. The term plumbing is generally used to describe conveyance of water, gas, or liquid waste in ordinary domestic or commercial environments, whereas piping is often used to describe high-performance (e.g. high pressure, high flow, high temperature, hazardous materials) conveyance of fluids in specialized applications. The term tubing is sometimes used for lighter-weight piping, especially types that are flexible enough to be supplied in coiled form.
Fittings (especially uncommon types) require money, time, materials, and tools to install, so they are a non-trivial part of piping and plumbing systems. Valves are technically fittings, but are usually discussed separately.
The B31.3 code has requirements for piping found in petroleum refineries; chemical, pharmaceutical, textile, paper, semiconductor, and cryogenic plants; and related processing plants and terminals. This code specifies requirements for materials and components, design, fabrication, assembly, erection, examination, inspection, and testing of piping. This Code is applicable to piping for all fluids including: (1) raw, intermediate, and finished chemicals; (2) petroleum products; (3) gas, steam, air and water; (4) fluidized solids; (5) refrigerants; and (6) cryogenic fluids.
Gaskets are used for sealing of flange joints. In general, gaskets should not be reused. Various types of gaskets are available depending upon their construction, materials, and features. The following are the type of gaskets commonly used:
Non-Metallic Gaskets (ASME B 16.21)
Spiral-Wound Gaskets (ASME B 16.20)
Ring Joint Gaskets (ASME B 16.20)
Non-Metallic Gaskets are used with flat face or raised face flanges. Spiral-Wound Gaskets are used with raised face flanges. They are available with an inner ring and outer ring, which is also known as the cantering ring. Ring Joint Gaskets are used with Ring Type Joint (RTJ) flanges. They are available in octagonal or oval cross sections.
A very high surface stress is developed between an RTJ gasket and the flange groove when RTJ is bolted up in a flange. This leads to plastic deformation of the gasket. Thus, the hardness of the gasket is kept less than the hardness of the groove to achieve coining i.e. bringing two metal surfaces of different hardness so tightly together that the softer surface deforms to match harder surface exactly in shape and finish.[further explanation needed] Hence RTJ gaskets are recommended for reuse.
An elbow is a pipe fitting installed between two lengths of pipe or tubing to allow a change of direction, usually a 90° or 45° angle, though 22.5° elbows are also made. The ends may be machined for butt welding, threaded (usually female), or socketed, etc. When the two ends differ in size, the fitting is called a reducing elbow or reducer elbow.
Elbows are categorized based on various design features as below:
Long Radius (LR) Elbows – radius is 1.5 times the pipe diameter
Short Radius (SR) Elbows – radius is 1.0 times the pipe diameter
90 Degree Elbow – where change in direction required is 90°
45 Degree Elbow – where change in direction required is 45°
A 90 degree elbow is also called a "90 bend" or "90 ell". It is a fitting which is bent in such a way to produce 90 degree change in the direction of flow in the pipe. It is used to change the direction in piping and is also sometimes called a "quarter bend". A 90 degree elbow attaches readily to plastic, copper, cast iron, steel and lead. It can also attach to rubber with stainless steel clamps. It is available in many materials like silicone, rubber compounds, galvanized steel, etc. The main application of an elbow (90 degree) is to connect hoses to valves, water pressure pumps, and deck drains. These elbows can be made from tough nylon material or NPT thread.
A 45 degree elbow is also called a "45 bend" or "45 ell". It is commonly used in water supply facilities, food industrial pipeline networks, chemical industrial pipeline networks, electronic industrial pipeline networks, air conditioning facility pipeline, agriculture and garden production transporting system, pipeline network for solar energy facility, etc.
Most elbows are available in short radius or long radius variants. The short radius elbows have a center-to-end distance equal to the Nominal Pipe Size (NPS) in inches, while the long radius is 1.5 times the NPS in inches. Short elbows are widely available, and are typically used in pressurized systems.
Long elbows are typically used in low-pressure gravity-fed systems and other applications where low turbulence and minimum deposition of entrained solids are of concern. They are readily available in acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS plastic), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) for DWV, sewage and central vacuums, chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) and copper for 1950s to 1960s houses with copper drains.
Steel Fasteners - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/stainless-steel-fasteners-nut-bolt-screw-washers-threaded-rod/
Dished Ends Manufacturer - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/dished-end-manufacturer/
Duplex Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/2205-duplex-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
Cupro Nickel Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/copper-nickel-pipe-fittings-elbow-flanges-manufacturer/
904L Elbow Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/904l-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
Monel Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/monel-pipe-fittings-elbow-flanges-manufacturer/
Inconel Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/inconel-pipe-fittings-elbow-flanges-manufacturer/
Alloy 20 Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/alloy-20-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
201/202 Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/201-202-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
304L Pipe Fittings / Elbow - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/304-304l-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
310S Elbow/Bends/Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/310s-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
316L Elbow/Bends/Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/316-316l-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
317L Pipe Fittings Elbow - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/317l-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
321 Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/321-321h-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
347H Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/347-347h-pipe-fittings-flanges-manufacturer/
Buttweld Pipe Fittings Manufacturer - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/buttweld-pipe-fittings-manufacturer/
Pipe Elbow - Long Radius & Short Radius Elbow Manufacturer - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/long-short-radius-pipe-elbow-manufacturer/
PIpe Tee- http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/pipe-tee-equal-reducing-manufacturer/
Pipe Cross - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/pipe-cross-equal-reducing-manufacturer/
Reducer - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/pipe-reducer-concentric-eccentric-manufacturer/
Pipe End Caps - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/pipe-end-caps-manufacturer/
Pipe Bends - Stainless Steel Bends|Piggable Bends - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/stainless-steel-pipe-bends-piggable/
Lap Joint Stubend - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/stubend-lap-joint-manufacturer/
Forged Pipe fittings Manufacturer - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/stainless-steel-forged-fittings-high-pressure-manufacturer/
Socket Weld Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/socket-weld-fittings-coupling-elbow-union-manufacturer/
Threaded Pipe Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/threaded-fittings-elbow-tee-coupling-union-manufacturer/
Pipe Nipples Manufacturer - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/pipe-nipples-manufacturer/
Pipe Olet Fittings - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/pipe-olet-fittings-manufacturer-weldolet-sockolet/
Forged Flanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/carbon-alloy-stainless-steel-flanges-manufacturer/
Threaded/Screwed Flanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/threaded-screwed-flanges-manufacturer/
Weld Neck Flanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/weld-neck-flanges-manufacturer/
Slip On FLanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/slip-on-flanges-manufacturer/
Socket Welding Flanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/socket-welding-flange-manufacturer/
Blind Flanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/blind-flange-manufacturer/
Lap Joint Flanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/lap-joint-flange-manufacturer/
Plate Flanges - http://www.metline-pipefittings.in/plate-flange-manufacture/