(by Danny Zurc)
Bats species have different nose forms. Studies have suggested that this complex organ is a highly functional structure [1,2]. For example, some echolocation calls are emitted by bats from nasal passages, in a process known as ‘nasal emission’. Those nasal-emitting bats have ‘noseleaves’, a structure that might serve acoustic functions . One hypothesis is that the bats moves the nose-leaf during echolocation, probably to control the vertical distribution of orientation sounds .
Micronycteris microtis is good example of such specialised-facial-morphology bats. This member of the Phyllostominae sub-family can be found in South and Central America. This species uses its nose when producing echolocation calls to better localize and target objects . Such calls have broadband pulses containing several harmonics between 50 and 160 kHz . In this recording, made in the Caribbean region of Colombia, Micronycteris microtis was registered with a peak frequency of 80 kHz (fig. 2).
This species also has large ears (18-22 mm), which is a useful morphological characteristic by which to recognise it . In Colombia it inhabits Andina and Caribbean regions from 0 at 310 masl .
 Schnitzler, H.-U. & Grinnell, A. D. Directional sensitivity of echolocation in the horseshoe bat,Rhinolophus ferrumequinum. J. Comp. Physiol. 116, 51–61 (1977).
 Pedersen, S. C. & Müller, R. Nasal-Emission and Nose leaves. in Bat Evolution, Ecology, and Conservation (eds. Adams, R. A. & Pedersen, S. C.) 71–91 (Springer, 2013).
 Shimozawa, T., Suga, N., Hendler, P. & Schuetze, S. Directional Sensitivity of Echolocation System in Bats Producing Frequency-Modulated Signals. J. Exp. Biol. 60, 53–69 (1974).
 Vanderelst, D., De Mey, F. & Peremans, H. Simulating the Morphological Feasibility of Adaptive Beamforming in Bats. in From Animals to Animats 11 (eds. Doncieux, S. et al.) 136–145 (Springer, 2010). doi:10.1007/978-3-642-15193-4_13.
 Williams, S. L. & Genoways, H. H. Subfamily Phyllostominae Gray, 1825 from Mammals of South America. Mammal. Pap. Univ. Neb. State Mus. 1, 255–300 (2007).
 Simmons, N. B. A new species of Micronycteris (Chiroptera, Phyllostomidae) from northeastern Brazil, with comments on phylogenetic relationships. Am. Mus. Novit. 3158, 1–35 (1996).