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Myelin is a dielectric (electrically insulating) material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. Myelin is an outgrowth of a glial cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination. The production of myelin occurs in the fourteenth week of fetal development, while very little amounts of myelin exist in the brain at the time of birth.